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First Impressions of a T380 Quadrotor RC Craft
 

Daniel Adi Nugroho dot Net

...because a man can’t just sit around

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First Impressions of a T380 Quadrotor RC Craft

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The giddy ten-year old boy within me is alive and kicking again. 

After doing the job as field LIDAR technician for a while, I become obsessed with aircrafts. As the cost to own and maintain a real, full-sized aircraft is prohibitively expensive for this lowly employee, and furthermore I am not qualified to fly one of those, I settled with smaller models – the cheap remote controlled tiny helicopters with counter-rotating propellers. Yeah I know it’s just toys. After ruined four units of those cheap three-channel RC helicopters in the past few months as an “intro” to this hobby, I gained more knowledge and more interest on remote controlled aircrafts, and then I decided to go serious. Real radio controllers, heavier aircrafts, and outdoor flying in the wind and sunshine.

I ended up ordering a quadrotor from a Chinese vendor, a LotusRC T380, also known as HPQ-1 in other countries. After about 2 weeks, finally the aircraft arrived in an almost ready to fly package, along with its radio controller, a 7-channel 2.4 GHz  DEVO7. I just added a 3S 2250 mAh battery bought from a local hobby shop and install the propellers, everything else has been done, including the tuning. The radio transmitter is pre-configured to be used with the T380, which makes it really “ready to fly”.

Even though the T380 has been strictly quality controlled, and has been flight-tested in the factory, human dexterity is still the defining factor of a successful flight. My very first flights were a series of brief lift off followed by crashes and uncontrolled flips. My brain and motoric nerves requires some time and training to be able to control this new craft, especially when it came to me nose-in, since all controls are reversed. Luckily, this little buzzing bird is quite resilient and is able to withstand the physical abuse. I broke one of the propellers on one of my first test flights, and I ordered a new set of carbon-filled propeller, which should be stronger and more resistant to breakage.

Overall design

Here's the technical drawing of T380 taken from the manual booklet:



Frame


The frame consists of a worked aluminium sheet for the landing gear, and four arms of double fiberglass hollow tubes. The landing gear was bent on several hard landings and crashes, but can be formed back easily by hand. The landing skid’s “shoes” is a pair of single fiberglass tubing with rubber caps.

It has four brushless motors installed in the X configuration. Sitting in the center of the intersection of the four arms are the electronics boards, secured on a chassis made of a piece of aluminium sheet. The skid and the arms are all attached to the chassis.

Since the frame is symmetrical in two axes, the front is supposed to be the part with yellow colored arms. However, for some reason, the pitch channel in my radio controller is set to move the black colored arms forward, instead of the yellow ones. Since I learned to fly this way, I personally consider the black arms are the front part of this flying craft.

Controller

The controller is fastened on top of the chassis, protected by a transparent, cheap-looking PVC dome. It consists of four printed circuit boards stacked on top of each other. The two bottom boards must be the ESC (electronic speed controller) rated at 12 Amperes, the top board must be the main flight controller. It has a dummy board, right underneath the flight controller board to suspend it on four pieces of foam to absorb vibration and shock.

The detailed specification or features of the proprietary controller is not described very much in the manual, however it does mention that the T380 has self-stabilization capability. If I hold it by my hand and turn the throttle lightly, and then I changed the attitude by hand, some rotors will run faster than the other to compensate for that change in attitude. I gave it some nudge in all three axis – roll, yaw, pitch, it does react to all of it.

I read from some web forums that T380 does have the altitude-hold capability, which is quite unexpected, given its low price tag.  I tried to hover it in calm air indoors and let go the throttle for a few seconds to let altitude-hold to kick-in, but I could not see it, it keeps drifting up and down to the point where I have to intervene.

By reading the labels on the integrated circuits and look them up at Google, I can deduce that T380 has various kinds of miniaturized sensors installed on its flight control board which contributes to its self-stabilization capability. It has gyroscopic sensors and accelerometer for all three axis of rotation and translation, and one atmospheric pressure sensor.

There are three chips which serves as inertial measurement sensors, all manufactured by STMicroelectronics:

  • LPR550AL - gyroscopic sensor for pitch and roll (labelled PR550A)
  • LY550ALH - gyroscopic sensor for yaw (labelled Y550AH)
  • LIS344ALH - three-axis accelerometer (labelled 34AH)

Altitude measurement is done by the circular component on the top board:

  • MPX4115A, manufactured by Freescale Semiconductor - atmospheric pressure sensor

The flight control software is likely to be run on the chip placed prominently at the center of the flight control board:

  • C8051F340, from Silicon Laboratories - 8-bit microcontroller based on Intel 8051, with clock rate up to 48 MHz, 4 KBytes RAM and 64 KBytes flash memory.


Motors

It has four C2208 KV900 outrunner brushless electric motors with 3 mm diameter rotor shaft, threaded. Like all other outrunners, this brushless motor has a static core of coils, and a rotating ring of permanent magnets. There are 9 set of coils fixed on the motor base, and 9 permanent magnets affixed on the rotor assembly. I noticed that the three wires connecting the motors to the ESC board seems to be too thin for its power.

According to the manual, the amount of vertical thrust provided by the four motors is strong enough to lift 1.3 kg of total weight, but I have not tested it yet. It is interesting to imagine that the thrust from these small motors is able to sustain a static hover a few meters above the ground and capable to drive wild maneuvers. I wish I can inject colored smoke from the top of the propellers, so that I can visualize the shape and the volume of turbulent air that is pushed down by these motors and its propellers.

Propellers

It came with two-bladed 8x4.5 plastic composite propellers. I tried using 10x4.5 propellers and it still work fine, except that it will put some additional strain to the motors, and causing them to draw more currents from the ESC. Using three-bladed 5x3 propellers never lifted it from the ground, even at maximum throttle. Since I want my motors to last longer, I stick with the recommended 8x4.5 propellers. The numbers specified on a propeller can be described as follows: the first number means the total length of the propeller in inches, and the second number (the pitch), means how far the propeller will advance in imaginary solid medium in one full rotation. Higher pitch means more thrust is produced at the same diameter, but requires more torque to propel it forward (or upwards), and consequently requires more power.

The propellers need to be fastened enough using its clips to prevent them from flying off from the motor during the flight. I lose one propeller clip already in such incidents. As there are no ducted fan or protector ring surrounding the propellers, therefore the T380 needs to be flown at a safe distance to avoid bodily harm and injury.

Battery

For outdoors flights, I am using Pulse 3S, 2250 mAh Lithium Polymer (Li-Po) battery to power this bird. Weighing at 190 grams and rated at 45 C, this battery should be capable of providing more than 15 minutes of flight time. However, I always restricted my flights to only 10 minutes or less before trying to land the craft. I utilized a pack of VRLA (Valve-Regulated Lead Acid) battery with 9000 mAh capacity to recharge my Li-Po battery at the field, of course through a regulated battery charger. For indoors learning, I am using Hyperion 1600 mAh battery that is lighter. In terms of energy density, the Lithium-Polymer batteries are the best batteries that is commercially available these days.

Video Camera


I acquired a lightweight “spy” camera, called Fly DV from a Hong Kong vendor, which is quite cheap. As expected, it comes with a somewhat inferior video quality compared to other brands such as Go Pro. Its rolling shutter introduces the infamous jello-effect due to in-flight vibration. It is shaped like a little missile with rotatable head at the front for the camera. It has 4GB internal flash memory, rechargeable internal battery, and a USB port for easy data transfer to a computer. The audio quality is less of a concern because it is always overwhelmed by the rough, buzzing noise of the propellers and the “heavy” noise from the wind. 

Radio Controller Tx and Rx

To control its flight, the T380 uses four channels – throttle, rudder, pitch, and aileron. The transmitter (Tx) that I have, is a Devention Devo-7, a seven channel radio controller featuring 2.4 GHz Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) technology that is supposed to be resistant to radio interference or jamming. Of course the Tx and Rx can utilize other brands, as long as it has four-channel. The receiver (Rx) part is glued to the chassis just in front of the controller board. Since the frequency is within gigahertz range, the propagation of the signal is limited within the line of sight from the transmitter antenna. This signal propagation model is not a problem since right now I am flying it remotely within the visual area, but it will be a serious concern when someday I move up to FPV (first person view) piloting.

Flight Control Dynamics

To steer an electric quadrotor is mechanically very simple, as there are no servos, gears, and other linkages to be dealt with. It relies solely on vertical thrust and torque to alter its position and orientation and move itself anywhere in three-dimensional space. The flight controller simply adjusts the individual speed of the motors through the ESC to get the desired movement, both commanded and automatic movements. The self-stabilization system allows the realtime attitude of the aircraft to be sensed to provide feedback to the controller, which will react to counteract any uncommanded imbalance in attitude. Hence, the bulk of the job to keep the quadrotor in the air is already done automatically by the flight controller, which put less workload to the human operator.

Flight Controls


First Video Test Flight

I am not yet a good pilot, as of today I am still trying hard not to crash it outdoors, and it means I’m not actually flying it 100% according to my will. Now that I am confident enough to fly the T380 for an extended amount of time outdoors without any crashes, I went to an underdeveloped housing complex just outside the Sentul Formula One International Circuit in Bogor, West Java, for a “proper” maiden video flight. No spectators except for some workers cutting the weed on the overgrown gardens within that empty complex. They focus on their work instead of taking a closer look on this tiny aircraft which sounds like a swarm of bees. No questions asked.

As flying it close at 10 meters radius is becoming easier for me, I lifted it up as high as I can, but this 60 cm wide stuff quickly becomes too small for my sight when flying very high, making it harder to judge its orientation and altitude. Even it’s hard to say whether it’s gaining altitude or losing altitude. I would say the maximum height that I can still control is perhaps at about 20-30 meters above the ground. Beyond that, I don’t know, I could not judge it visually. I have not seen its altitude-hold capability, probably due to the wind and air updrafts which makes it constantly “sliding-off” and wandering away from a stationary position, and urged me to frantically move the sticks to bring the quadcopter back to the safer range. This lateral drift is inevitable due to the lack of positioning sensors such as GPS receiver, optical flow detector, or any kind of rangefinders in T380.The wind at higher elevation can easily carry it away, and requires an effort to bring it back under control. I don’t want to lose this electro-mechanical bird too soon. 

The craft is quite stable to me, for casual hover in the unobstructed calm air there is no need for constant manual control to keep it steady. With the 2250 mAh battery and camera attached, it will lift-off and float in the ground-effect at about 45-50% throttle, and finally it will escape the ground-effect hover at 50-55% throttle. It can also be responsive and highly maneuverable whenever needed, however, I have not tried any sophisticated acrobatic stunts except for some quick maneuvers to avoid crashing it to buildings and trees. Sometimes I could not believe I made those crazy stunts in desperation... a combination of good luck and perhaps good reflexes - thanks to the frequent crashes in my first days of flying this quadrotor.

After the five-minute flight which ended up in smooth landing, I noticed that the clockwise-running motors are much hotter than the other pair, I barely able to touch it for more than 4 seconds. Based from some web forums it seems to be a combination of problems with the controller and motor symmetry, affecting many similar units. Apparently it yaws to counter-clockwise direction all the time, causing the clockwise rotating motors to run faster in order to cancel the torque, thus providing a stable flight.

The video itself is a bit dizzying due to the way I steered the quadrotor. I should have been more steady and avoid the frantic panning motion. To reduce the amount of vibration and shaking in the final video, I processed it with VirtualDub video processing software, with “De-shaker” plug-in filter, and then replacing the noisy audio with comforting background music.

The beaten-up T380

So, what’s next? 

Besides improving my piloting skills, I plan to replace its chassis and skids with carbon-fiber material, build a better canopy to cover its electronics, fixing the clockwise motors that are running way too hard by tilting them to counteract the overall yaw of the craft. I guess I should look for a compact GPS data logger too for better post-flight analysis, and probably installing an FPV system on it… if my entertainment budget allows.

Out there, there are larger and more-advanced quadrotors from DIY Drones, equipped with an Arduino board and its open-source controller software, capable of hauling larger payload and perform an automated flight based on a set of pre-determined coordinates, which allows high-quality aerial photography and videography, both for artistic and engineering purposes.  


It would also be great to see the actual real-time telemetry data on the ground, integrated within an FPV system so that I can monitor:

- the barometric altitude

- the range from the ground station

- the GPS coordinates and heading

- motor current draw and rotational speed

- battery voltage

I need to shell out a good amount of money for this better craft, so for the time being I think I’ll settle down with improving my existing T380 the best I can. 



Real-World Applications

A few days ago, I visited an agricultural exhibition, and I stopped at the booth of a company which offers UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) for photography and mapping solution. This Jakarta- based startup company offers fixed wing models to their clients, equipped with Arduino boards as the customizable controller, and lightweight “prosumer” digital cameras as the main payload. When I asked their technician and salesman about quadrotors, it turned out that the classic problem is always the limited flight time and its sensitivity to the wind. Their best machine is a fixed wing RC airplane made of balsa wood, powered by a small internal combustion engine, which is powerful enough to haul a full-frame DSLR camera, however this particular system is not for sale. 

Gasoline still has much higher energy density compared to the Lithium Polymer batteries. A quick look on Wikipedia informs me that gasoline has 47.2 mega Joule of energy per kilogram, while Li-Po batteries only contains 0.72 mega Joule per kilogram, and of course everything will be further affected by the efficiency of the engines or motors. This fact made me thinking of gasoline-powered quadrotors, which will make longer duration flights possible, opening up a number of useful real-world application. These include reconnaissance flights, disaster response, aerial surveillance, aerial mapping, cultural heritage preservation, search and rescue, and many others, and even the automated parcel delivery in areas with difficult terrain.

Talking about the real world and real job… within a month or so from now, I will fly LIDAR and photo acquisition along 800 kilometer natural gas pipeline in Sumatera, on a Bolkow Bo-105 helicopter. As I have never flown any helicopter missions before, that should be as fun as flying that little T380 quadrotor!


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Last Updated on Monday, 21 May 2012 05:16
 

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